Thursday, December 11, 2008

sebuah catatan terinspirasi dari (Jurney into The Centre of the Earth)

BATUAN DAN MINERAL


(Jurney into The Centre of the Earth)

Disusun Oleh : Moh. Arif Rifqi

(073112620150012)

A. Batuan

Batuan tersusun atas bahan yang disebut mineral, yang merupakan senyawa kimia padat yang terbentuk secara alami. Jadi mineral adalah bahan pembentuk batuan. Batuan dapat tersusun oleh satu mineral atau campuran beberapa macam mineral.

Bagian luar bumi tertutupi oleh daratan dan lautan dimana bagian dari Bagian luar bumi tertutupi oleh daratan dan lautan dimana bagian dari lautan lebih besar daripada bagian daratan. Akan tetapi karena daratan adalah bagian dari kulit bumi yang dapat kita amati langsung dengan dekat maka banyak hal-hal yang dapat pula kita ketahui dengan cepat dan jelas. Salah satu diantaranya adalah kenyataan bahwa daratan tersusun oleh beberapa jenis batuan yang berbeda satu sama lain. Dari jenisnya batuan-batuan tersebut dapat digolongkan menjadi 3 jenis golongan. Mereka adalah : batuan beku (igneous rocks), batuan sediment (sedimentary rocks), dan batuan metamorfosa/malihan (metamorphic rocks). Batuan-batuan tersebut berbeda-beda materi penyusunnya dan berbeda pula proses terbentuknya. Batuan tersebut adalah :




1. Batuan beku, disusun oleh mineral hasil pembekuan magma. Batuan beku atau sering disebut igneous rocks adalah batuan yang terbentuk dari satu atau beberapa mineral dan terbentuk akibat pembekuan dari magma. Berdasarkan teksturnya batuan beku ini bisa dibedakan lagi menjadi batuan beku plutonik dan vulkanik. Perbedaan antara keduanya bisa dilihat dari besar mineral penyusun batuannya. Batuan beku plutonik umumnya terbentuk dari pembekuan magma yang relatif lebih lambat sehingga mineral-mineral penyusunnya relatif besar. Contoh batuan beku plutonik ini seperti gabro, diorite, dan granit (yang sering dijadikan hiasan rumah). Sedangkan batuan beku vulkanik umumnya terbentuk dari pembekuan magma yang sangat cepat (misalnya akibat letusan gunung api) sehingga mineral penyusunnya lebih kecil. Contohnya adalah basalt, andesit (yang sering dijadikan pondasi rumah), dan dacite.

Dalam geologi, sebuah intrusi adalah sebuah batuan beku yang telah menjadi kristal dari sebuah magma yang meleleh di bawah permukaan Bumi. Magma yang membeku di bawah tanah sebelum mereka mencapai permukaan bumi dinamakan pluton, dari nama Pluto, Dewa Romawi dunia bawah tanah. Batuan dari jenis ini juga disebut sebagai batuan beku plutonik atau batuan beku intrusif. Dia berlawanan dengan batuan ekstrusif. Batuan yang mengelilingi pluton disebut country rock.

2. Batuan endapan sebagai hasil pengendapan rombakan batuan yang diangkut oleh air (sungai) dan terendapkan pada suatu cekungan seperti laut, danau, sungai atau rawa. Nama lainya adalah Batuan sediment atau sering disebut sedimentary rocks adalah batuan yang terbentuk akibat proses pembatuan atau lithifikasi dari hasil proses pelapukan dan erosi yang kemudian tertransportasi dan seterusnya terendapkan. Batuan sediment ini bias digolongkan lagi menjadi beberapa bagian diantaranya batuan sediment klastik, batuan sediment kimia, dan batuan sediment organik. Batuan sediment klastik terbentuk melalui proses pengendapan dari material-material yang mengalami proses transportasi. Besar butir dari batuan sediment klastik bervariasi dari mulai ukuran lempung sampai ukuran bongkah. Biasanya batuan tersebut menjadi batuan penyimpan hidrokarbon (reservoir rocks) atau bisa juga menjadi batuan induk sebagai penghasil hidrokarbon (source rocks). Contohnya batu konglomerat, batu pasir dan batu lempung. Batuan sediment kimia terbentuk melalui proses presipitasi dari larutan. Biasanya batuan tersebut menjadi batuan pelindung (seal rocks) hidrokarbon dari migrasi. Contohnya anhidrit dan batu garam (salt). Batuan sediment organik terbentuk dari gabungan sisa-sisa makhluk hidup. Batuan ini biasanya menjadi batuan induk (source) atau batuan penyimpan (reservoir). Contohnya adalah batugamping terumbu.

3. Batuan malihan berasal dari batuan bekuan dan batuan endapan yang termalihkan susunan mineralnya atau batuan malihan yang termalihkan ulang. Pemalihan susunan mineral disebabkan karena peningkatan suhu dan tekanan. Batuan metamorf atau batuan malihan adalah batuan yang terbentuk akibat proses perubahan temperature dan/atau tekanan dari batuan yang telah ada sebelumnya. Akibat bertambahnya temperature dan/atau tekanan, batuan sebelumnya akan berubah tektur dan strukturnya sehingga membentuk batuan baru dengan tekstur dan struktur yang baru pula. Contoh batuan tersebut adalah batu sabak atau slate yang merupakan perubahan batu lempung. Batu marmer yang merupakan perubahan dari batu gamping. Batu kuarsit yang merupakan perubahan dari batu pasir.Apabila semua batuan-batuan yang sebelumnya terpanaskan dan meleleh maka akan membentuk magma yang kemudian mengalami proses pendinginan kembali dan menjadi batuan-batuan baru lagi.

Proses-proses tersebut berlangsung sepanjang waktu baik di masa lampau maupun masa yang akan datang. Kejadian alam dan proses geologi yang berlangsung sekarang inilah yang memberikan gambaran apa yang telah terjadi di masa lampau seperti diungkapkan oleh ahli geologi “JAMES HUTTON” dengan teorinya “THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST”

B. Mineral




Mineral adalah senyawa alami yang terbentuk melalui proses geologis. Istilah mineral termasuk tidak hanya bahan komposisi kimia tetapi juga struktur mineral. Mineral termasuk dalam komposisi unsur murni dan garam sederhana sampai silikat yang sangat kompleks dengan ribuan bentuk yang diketahui (senyawaan organik biasanya tidak termasuk). Ilmu yang mempelajari mineral disebut mineralogi.

Mineral berasal dari magma yaitu suatu cairan silikat kimia, baik logam maupun non logam. Mineral ini terbentuk karena proses kristalisasi pada temperatur tertentu ketika terjadi proses pendinginan.

Secara fisik, mineral ini merupakan kristal dalam berbagai bentuk, hal ini tergantung kedudukan dan banyaknya bidang kristal. Warnanya berbagai macam mencerminkan komposisi unsur yang menyusunya. Mineral setelah mengalami pengolahan seperti pemotongan dan penggosokan akan bertambah indah bentuk dan warnanya, sering disebut batu permata yang bisa dipakai sebagai perhiasan.

Sekitar 100 jenis disebut sebagai batu permata. Batu permata ini sangat banyak jenisnya tetapi jarang ditemukan dan sangat berharga. Mineral yang digunakan sebagaibatu permata mempunyai kekerasan yang besar.

Agar dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai mineral sejati, senyawa tersebut haruslah berupa padatan dan memiliki struktur kristal. Senyawa ini juga harus terbentuk secara alami dan memiliki komposisi kimia yang tertentu. Definisi sebelumnya tidak memasukkan senyawa seperti mineral yang berasal dari turunan senyawa organik. Bagaimanapun juga, pada tahun 1995 the International Mineralogical Association telah mengajukan definisi baru tentang definisi material. Mineral adalah suatu unsur atau senyawa yang dalam keadaan normalnya memilili unsur kristal dan terbentuk dari hasil proses geologi. Klasifikasi modern telah mengikutsertakan kelas organik kedalam daftar mineral, seperti skema klasifikasi yang diajukan oleh Dana dan Strunz.

Mineral menurut (krauset.al 1959) merupakan suatu zat yang terdapat dalam alam dengan komposisi kimia yang khas dan biasanya mempunyai struktur kristal yang jelas, yang kadang-kadang dapat menjelma dalam bentuk geometris tertentu.

Istilah mineral dapat mempunyai bermacam-macam makna; sukar untuk mendefinisikan mineral dan oleh karena itu kebanyakan orang mengatakan, bahwa mineral ialah satu frase yang terdapat dalam alam. Sebagaimana kita ketahui ada mineral yang berbentuk lempeng, tiang, limas, dan kubus.

Batu permata kalau ditelaah adalah merupakan campuran dari unsur-unsur mineral.
Setiap mineral yang dapat membesar tanpa gangguan akan memperkembangkan bentuk kristalnya yang khas, yaitu suatu wajah lahiriah yang dihasilkan struktur kristalen (bentuk kristal). Ada mineral dalam keadaan Amorf, yang artinya tak mempunyai bangunan dan susunan kristal sendiri (mis kaca & opal). Tiap-tiap pengkristalan akan makin bagus hasilnya jika berlangsungnya proses itu makin tenang dan lambat.

Kristal

Kristal adalah sebuah benda yang homogen, berbentuk sangat geometris dan atom-atomnya tersusun dalam sebuah kisi-kisi kristal,karena bangunan kisi-kisi kristal tersebut berbeda-beda maka sifatnya juga berlainan. Kristal dapat terbentuk dalam alam (mineral) atau di laboratorium. Kristal artinya mempunyai bentuk yang agak setangkup (symetris) dan yang pada banyak sisinya terbatas oleh bidang datar, sehingga memberi bangin yang tersendiri sifatnya kepada mineral yang bersangkutan.
Benda padat yang terdiri dari atom-atom yang tersusun rapi dikatakan mempunyai struktur kristalen. Dalam suasana yang baik benda kristalen dapat mempunyai batas bidang rata-rata & benda itu dinamakan kristal (HABLUR) & bidang rata itu disebut muka krsital. Ada 32 macam gelas kristal yang dipersatukan dalam 6 sistem kristal, yaitu:

REGULER, Kubus atau ISOMETRIK ketiga poros sama panjang dan berpotongan tegak lurus satu sama lain (contoh : intan, pirit, garam batu)

TETRAGONAL (berbintang empat) ketiga poros tegak lurus satu sama lain, dua poros sama panjang sedangkan poros ketiga berbeda (contoh chalkopirit, rutil, zircon).

HEKSAGONAL (berbintang enam) Hablur ini mempunyai empat poros, tiga poros sama panjang dan terletak dalam satu bidang, bersilangdengan sudut 120 derajat (60 derajat), tetapi poros ke-empat tegak lurus atas bidang itu dan panjangnya berbeda (contoh apalit, beryl, korundum).

ORTOROMBIS (irisan wajik) ketiga poros tidak sama panjang du poros berpotongan siku-siku dan poros ketiga memotong miring bidang kedua poros tadi (berit, belerang, topaz)

MONOKLIN (miring sebelah) ketiga poros tidak sama panjang, dua dari porosnya berpotongan sorong & poros ketiga tegak lurus atas kedua poros tadi (gips, muskovit, augit)

TRIKLIN (miring, ketiga arah) ketiga poros tidak sama panjang dan berpotongan serong satu sama lain(albit, anortit, distin)

Garis

Kristal / mineral yang mempunyai kekerasan < 7 jika digosokkan pada lempengan porselin yang kasar biasanya meninggalkan ditempat penggosokan tsb suatu garis yang karakteristik dan seringkali berwarna lain dari mineral itu sendiri.

Pirit yang warnanya kuning emas meninggalkan garis hitam; Hematit (Fe2O3) yang berkilap kelogam – logaman atau memberigaris merah darah; Fluisvat memberikan garis putih (mineral yang berwarna terang tetapi memberi garis putih); Skala Kekerasan MOH's

Kekerasan adalah sebuah sifat fisik lain, yang dipengaruhi oleh tata letak intern dari atom. Untuk mengukur kekerasan mineral dipakai Skala Kekerasan MOHS (1773-1839).

Talk, mudah digores dengan kuku ibu jari; GIPS, mudah digores dengan kuku ibu jari; Kalsit, mudah digores dengan pisau; Fluorit, mudah digores dengan pisau; Apatit, dapat dipotong dengan pisau (agak sukar); Ortoklas, dapat dicuwil tipis-tipis dengan pisau dibagian pinggir; Kwarsa, dapat menggores kaca; Topaz, dapat menggores kaca; Korundum, dapat mengores topaz; Intan, dapat menggores korundum

Bentuk Kristal Intan ialah benda padat besisi delapan (OKTAHEDRON)

K = 1 : Talk/Silikat magnesia yang mengandung air

K = 2 : Gips (CaSO4), batu tahu

K = 3 : Kalsit (CaCo3)

K = 4 : Vluispat (CaF2)

K = 5 : Apatit mengandung chloor

K = 6 : Veldspat, kaca tingkap

K = 7 : Kwarsa, pisau dari baja

K = 8 : Topas; Silikat alumunium yang mengandung borium, batu permata

K = 9 : Korsum (Al2O3 dalam corak merah, batu permata delima, corak biru batu nilam/safir)

K = 10 : intan batu permata

Masing-masing mineral tersebut diatas dapat menggores mineral lain yang bernomor lebih kecil dan dapat digores oleh mineral lain yang bernonor lebih besar. Dengan lain perkataan SKALA MOHS adalah Skala relative. Dari segi kekerasan mutlak skala ini masih dapat dipakai sampai yang ke 9, artinya no. 9 kira-kira 9 kali sekeras no. 1, tetapi bagi no. 10 adalah 42 kali sekeras no. 1

K.E. Kinge (1860) dalam Han Sam Kay mengelompokkan batu permata yang dijadikan perhiasan dalam lima belas kelas sebagai berikut :

Batu permata Kelas I, Nilai Keras antara 8 s/d 10

Batu Permata kelas II, Nilai Keras antara 7 s/d 8

Batu permata Kelas III

Batu permata kelas ini tergolong jenis batu mulia dan batu mulia tanggung, nilai kerasnya kira-kira 7, sebagian besar terdiri dari asam kersik (kiezelzuur), keculai pirus (tuquois)

Batu-Batu mulia Tanggung yaitu batu kelas IV, nilai keras antara 4 – 7

Batu kelas V

Batu kelas V nilai kerasnya dan kadar berat jenisnya sangat berbeda-beda. Warnanya gelap (kusam) dan kebanyakan agak keruh, tidak tembus cahaya, batunya sedikit mengkilap, dan harganyapun amat murah bila dibandingkan dengan harga batu mulia. Dalam kelas ini termasuk batu marmer dan batu kelas V tidak tergolong batu mulia.

Belahan

Belah adalah kecenderungan batu permata untuk membelah kearah tertentu menyusur permukaan bidang rata, lebih spesifik lagi ia menunjukkan kearah mana ikatan-ikatan diantara atom relative lemah dan biasanya reta-retak menunjukan arah belah. Belahan ialah sifat untuk menjadi belah menurut bidang yang agak sama licinnya, yaitu : belahan baik sekali, baik, sedang, buruk, tidak ada belahan sama sekali

Warna

Warna dapat dilihat ketika terjadi beberapa proses pemindahan panjang gelombang, beberapa menyerap panjang gelombang spesifik dari spektrum yang dapat dilihat. Spektrum yang dapat dilihat terdiri dari warna merah, oranye, kuning, hijau, biru, nila dan violet.

Ketika terjadi pemindahan panjang gelombang akan mempengaruhi energi dan akan terjadi perubahan warna dan jika permata itu mengandung besi biasanya akan terlihat berwarna kelam, sedangkan yang mengandung alumunium biasanya terlihat berwarna cerah, tetapi juga ada mineral yang berwarna tetap seperti air (berkristal) dan dinamakan Idhiochromatic

Disini warna merupakan sifat pembawaan disebabkan karena ada sesuatu zat dalam permata sebagai biang warna (pigment agent) yang merupakan mineral-mineral yaitu : belerang warnanya kuning; malakit warnanya hijau; azurite warnanya biru; pirit warnanya kuning; magatit warnanya hitam; augit warnanya hijau; gutit warnanya kuning hingga coklat; hematite warnanya merah dsbnya.

Ada juga mineral yang mempunyai warna bermacam-macam dan diistilahkan allokhromatik, hal ini disebabkan kehadiran zat warna (pigmen), terkurungnya sesuatu benda (inclusion) atau kehadiran zat campuran (Impurities). Impurities adalah unsur-unsur yang antara lain terdiri dari Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, dan biasanya tidak hadir dalam campuran murni, unsur-unsur yang terkonsentrasi dalam batu Permata Rendah.

Aneka warna batu permata ini sangat mempersona manusia sehingga manusia memberi gelar “mulia” pada batu-batu itu, contoh intan yang hanya terdiri dari satu unsur mineral yakni zat arang merupakan benda yang padat yang bersisi delapan karena adanya zat campuran yang berbeda akan menyebabkan warna yang berbeda : tidak berwarna, kuning, kuning muda, agak kebiru-biruan, merah, biru agak hijau, merah jambu, merah muda, agak kuning coklat, hitam yang dinamakan carbonado, hijau daun. Banyak mineral hanya memperlihatkam warna yang terang pada bagian-bagian yang tipis sekali. Mineral yang lebih besar dan tebal selalu memberi kesan yang hitam, tanda demikian antara lain diperlihatkan oleh banyak mineral.Warna hijau muda; jika warna tersebut makin tua berarti makin bertambah Kadar Fe didalam molekulnya.

Berat Jenis (BD)

Untuk mengetahui mineral yang belum diketahui Bdnya dipakai alat yang disebut cairan berat :



Pertama : Bromoform (ChBr); Kedua : Joodmethylin (Ch2 J2); Ketiga : Cclerici yaitu larutan Thallium malonat formiat; Mineral dengan BD < 2,68 mineral ringan; kwarsa: 2,57; albit: 2,62; oligoklas: 2,64; Mineral dengan BD > 2,68 mineral berat; Labradorit: 2,70; Anortit: 2,76; Augit hornblende: 3,20; Maskotit: 2,90; Biotitit: 3,00; Korundum: 3,20; Turmalin; Mineral dengan BD 3,3 – 4 mineral amat berat; olefin; starolit; granat / garnet; Mineral dengan BD > 4 dan kekerasan = 7; Zirkon.

BD = 2,65 Mineral tergolong dalam fraksi enteng dan bias rangkapnya Kuarsa kristalen; bergkristalØtergolong rendah yaitu terdiri dari opal = sebetulnya gel asamØ(tidak berwarna); amathis atau kecubung chalsedon; jenis kristalnya jenis kripto (kwarsa kriptoØkersik kristalen); k = 7; struktur kristalnya baru tampak jika dilihat dengan agat; jenis kristalnya jenis kripto (kwarsaØmenggunakan mikroskop. kripto kristalen) = k = 7; struktur kristalnya baru tampak jika dilihat Oniks, jenis kristalnya jenis kriptoØdengan menggunakan mikroskop (kwarsa kripto kristalen) = k = 7; struktur kristalnya baru tampak jika opalØ besi kersik Ø jaspis Ødilihat dengan menggunakan mikroskop tanggung (half opal) = sifat membelah tidak ada pecahannya berupa kerang.

Nefrit = Jade = Giok {Ca2 (Mg, Fe)5 (OH)2Si8O22}ØBD = 2,9 – 3,3 aktinolit atau Amfibol kalsium magnesium besi; bentuk menyerabut atau asbes tiform; warna kelabu, kehijau-hijauan atau kekuning-kuningan; adanya garis kembar; warna plagioklas putih, kadang – kadang kehijau-hijauan, hijau tua, coklat, hitam, kadang-kadang tembus pandang (transparan), tembus cahaya (Translucent) atau opal; bidang belah berpotongan dengan sudut 550 dan 1250 ; K = 5 – 6; apabila dipanaskan mengeluarkan air yang menunjukkan bahwa ia terbentuk dalam suasana hidro (perhatikan adanya gugusan OH) atau dikenal sebagai AMFIBOL.

Epidot ( H2 M4 “M6”’ Si6O26, M”); dari batu-batuanØBD = 3,3 – 3,6 endapan atau sedimen yang lebih tua; k = 6,5; Hijau- hijau kekuning-kuningan, terdapat jenis yang berwarna merah; belahan baik; mengristal monoklin, prisma; bias cahaya dan bias rangkap kuat.

Granat/Garnet (M3” M2”’ SiO3O12); dari batuanØBD = 3,5 – 5,3 sedimen tua; kristal reguler; bias cahaya keras, tidak berbias rangkap (Isotrop); K = 7; belahan baik; warna merah, merah coklat, kuning dan hijau jarang, tidak berwarna sama sekali.

Korundum (Al2O3) tersusun sangat padat; tak berwarnaØBD = 4 –bermacam-macam warna; K = 9; Oktahedron/Hexagonal; Bias tinggi; Bias Spinel (M” = Mg, Zr, Fe; M”’ = Cr, Al,Ørangkapnya rendah. (3,9 – 4,1) Mn); hijau tua; K = 7,5 – 8; Biasnya tinggi, Mengkristal secara reguler; bersifat isotrop dalam optiknya; belahannya seringkali buruk

Ortit termasuk golongan Epidot hanya dalamØBD = 4,2 persenyawaannya berbeda disebabkan kadar Ce yang tinggi; K= 5,6; merah coklat, coklat merah tua – kuning atau coklat kuning; kristal gemuk Turmalin {H9Al3(B.OH)2Si4O19}; K= 7; Heksagonal,Øseperti prisma; belahan buruk, Bias sedang; Pleokroisnya sangat kuat; jernis seperti air, Coklat biru sampai hitam, turmalin biru agak jarang diketemukan.

Tiap-tiap batu permata yang sudah dikenal berat jenisnya dapat diketahui nilai keras batu, dari berat batu dapatlah dihitung kari dari permata tersebut. Karat adalah satuan berat yang setimbang dengan seperlima gram. Satuan ini disebut karat metric. Jika kita timbang berat intan, tidak dikatakan berat intan 1 gram tetapi berat intan adalah 5 karat, demikian yang lain batu rubi beratnya 17,8 karat, batu sapphire 7 karat dsbnya.














Sumber Pustaka

http://www.perpustakaan-online.blogspot.com/2008/05/batuan.html

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mineral

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_mineral

http://www.geocities.com/museumgeologi/Geologi/dunia.htm

http://www.geocities.com/kuliahgeologi/mineral.htm

http://funnyfree.net/results03/jenis_mineral_penyusun_batuan.html

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