Flood is one of the natural disasters that often occur in Indonesia, especially in big cities. The main cause of flood is the use of space that is not in accordance with its carrying capacity, due to population pressure Floods can cause economic loss, life, health and hygiene. To reduce this, need to be mitigating some of them in the form of spatial management, spatial arrangement of water by considering the hydrological cycle, through environmental modeling with geographic information system (GIS).
GIS is a system that collects, stores, support access to spatial and non spatial information to achieve solutions to problems and decision-making. GIS is defined as a set system that can retrieve, store, integrate, manipulate, analyze, and display information on spatial GIS applications can be used for the analysis of phenomena associated with land surface modeling to identify areas prone to flooding. Therefore, the purpose of writing this manuscript is to investigate and analyze the potential for flooding by using geographic information systems.
Critical components in the geographical information system data (lansat imagery and vector), software, hardware, methods, and human resources depend on each other. GIS data used in the form of tabular data containing variables non-spatial and spatial data that contains geographic-based information.
Flooding is a condition of the river where water flow is not accommodated by the riverbed. Meanwhile, the riverbed is a major part of the river as a groove that serves to drain the amount of water per unit time (discharge) from the upstream gets downstream. The size of the riverbed and the intensity of rainfall in upstream areas were very influential in the frequency of flood events cause flooding, among others, is the lack of water catchment areas or drainage, high rainfall, soil erosion, blockage of the sewer waste, silting up the river bed, the additional water flow from upstream , and less smooth flow into the sea. Lack of drainage area can be a lack of green open space or loose soil that may allow the absorption of water into the soil. In addition, the local drainage system is also affected by land subsidence resulting from excessive ground water sampling and continuous
Writing done with literature study that are considered relevant and can be used in reviewing and analyzing the potential for flooding based on geographical information system.
Abiotic and biotic parameters is important to note as a variable for spatial analysis. Variables must be taken are rainfall, topography, soil conditions, and regional geomorphology Watershed (DAS), and land use. Geographical Information System to assist in analyzing the parameters of the potential for flooding by combining the tabular data (parameters taken) with spatial data (landsat imagery and vector). Flood prevention can be done by vegetative methods, mechanical, physical, social and economic.